Analysis and Application Countermeasures of enterp

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Brief discussion on enterprise informatization analysis and Application Countermeasures

I. overview

at the end of the 1980s, with the popularity of personal computers, computers gradually entered Chinese enterprises, from basic word processing to the application of simple salary management software, and gradually to daily management work. Enterprises have embarked on the journey of informatization construction consciously and unconsciously. Nowadays, informatization is no longer a new concept, "E-commerce" has become the goal pursued by many enterprises, but looking at the process of enterprise informatization in China, the degree of informatization is not high. Most enterprises have not established local areas within the enterprise at all, and the degree of informatization only stays in the single application at the department level, such as the application of financial management software or inventory management software. The understanding of e-commerce is to build a station and publish commodity information, Due to the lack of planning, the content of the station has not been updated for a long time. Such a station is difficult to bring benefits to the enterprise. After a long time, it is basically abandoned. With the integration of the global economy, Chinese enterprises are facing fierce competition. How to survive and develop in the fierce competition is still a question for every enterprise, Bill Gates, the leader of the world's largest software enterprise, once said, "I have a simple and strong belief. The most meaningful way to distinguish your company from your competitors, and the best way to make your company ahead of many companies, is to use information to do excellent work. How you collect, manage and use information will determine your win or lose." In a business era of "fast fish eat slow fish", how to apply information technology to help enterprises improve their competitiveness

II. Application level of enterprise informatization

according to the application level of enterprise informatization, the development of enterprise informatization is roughly divided into three levels:

the first level is the electronization of enterprise data. Through the application of inventory management and financial management software, purchase orders, stock in and stock out orders and other data are entered into the computer and saved in the database for statistical summary and query, At this level, the main body of computer application is the grass-roots employees of enterprises. The use of computers will greatly improve the work efficiency of grass-roots staff and reduce the workload, but the use of information systems will also lead to layoffs

the computerization of the second level business process. According to the transmission characteristics of information, once the data is entered, it can be transmitted to any place that needs it in time through the network. The use of data does not need to be transmitted layer by layer in the way of manual processing. Through the management of the database, the sharing of data is very convenient. The information system at this level is designed according to the standard enterprise business process, and its use makes the enterprise business process more smooth, The division between business departments is broken, and the data of all departments of the enterprise is better shared, which standardizes the work of employees involved in business processes, reduces human control factors, and improves customer satisfaction

the third level of enterprise information management extends beyond the enterprise, such as the management of information such as data exchanges between enterprises and partners in the supply chain, business exchanges between enterprises and customers, and enhances the competitiveness of enterprises through the extension of information management. The application of this level of information system is e-commerce, which is actually the product of the development of enterprise informatization in a certain period

the final goal of the information system is to provide decision support for the management, and provide effective support for management and decision-making through the processing and sorting of enterprise data stored in the computer

it can be seen that the informatization of enterprises is from simple application, to the informatization of department level management, to the informatization of the whole enterprise, and then from within the enterprise to outside the enterprise. The information is also used by single machines, to local sharing and transmission within the enterprise, and then to the transmission of data between enterprises through the Internet. In fact, as we all know, the embryonic form of e-commerce is electronic data exchange (EDI) between enterprises. In the early 1970s, data transmission between enterprises was through EDI, but because of its high cost, even in the United States, only large enterprises can afford it. With the rapid development of Internet and its low cost, many individuals and small companies can access it, and information exchange between enterprises can be carried out through the Internet, "E-commerce" has gradually become hot, so that some people call e-commerce "Internet commerce". However, the leaders of state-owned enterprises still believe that "e-commerce" is a foam. Such a wrong understanding of e-commerce is due to the lack of understanding of enterprise informatization, and they simply do not realize the great impact that Internet will have on enterprises and even personal social life

the boundlessness of the Internet has enabled trade to transcend the limitations of time and space. It can carry out business activities to anyone at any time and place, and has also intensified business competition. With China's accession to the WTO, it is an urgent and serious problem for Chinese enterprises to seize opportunities, make full use of e-commerce, and improve the information level of enterprises. Enterprise informatization is no longer a problem for enterprise leaders to think about, but related to the survival of enterprises. Some enterprises in China have really felt the urgency of competition and hope to relieve pressure and enhance competitiveness through the construction of information technology, but many enterprises do not fully understand their competitive environment. The real driving force of enterprise informatization comes from outside the enterprise. An enterprise that does not consider the implementation of informatization, even if it has good benefits now, may die in the near future. What enterprise leaders should consider now is how to effectively implement enterprise informatization

III. bottlenecks and breakthroughs restricting enterprise informatization

What are the factors restricting the development of enterprise informatization and e-commerce? According to the results of the questionnaire sampling survey and key interviews of Chinese scholars, The restrictive factors for the development of e-commerce in enterprises are mainly reflected in the following aspects [1]:

lack of relevant professional and technical personnel: 60%

insufficient attention of leaders: 30%

low level of enterprise management: 40%

lack of funds: 47%

lack of necessary training for employees: 33%

cultural quality of employees: 27%

others: 3%

looking for a breakthrough

from the survey results, It can be seen that the "lack of professional and technical personnel" has taken the first place in restricting the development of e-commerce. Many small and medium-sized enterprises need higher costs to recruit IT personnel with good technology because of their small size, and they may not be able to retain them. At the same time, the "lack of funds" also takes the second place. How should enterprises solve these two bottlenecks? In the case of limited funds and lack of professional and technical personnel, how should enterprise informatization and e-commerce be carried out? Enterprise leaders can use the method of critical success factors to analyze the enterprise and find out the breakthrough of enterprise informatization. James Martin is a famous scholar in the United States. He believes that in most enterprises, there are factors that play a key role in the success of the organization, which are generally called key success factors of enterprise operation. Each enterprise usually has 3-6 key success factors. In order to make the enterprise succeed, these key tasks must be completed very carefully. The key success factors are related to the business processing of the enterprise and the key areas of high performance required, For example, James Martin gave examples of key factors in the automotive industry: fuel conservation, vehicle style, efficient supply organization, and strict control of production costs. Enterprise leaders can list the key success factors of the enterprise, and then consider whether information technology can be applied in these places to improve the competitiveness of the enterprise. On the premise of unified enterprise information planning, the capital can be invested intensively and implemented step by step. The construction of informatization projects must measure the benefits. Some benefits can be measured by economic indicators, such as reducing costs and improving work efficiency, while some benefits may be invisible, such as the increase of customer satisfaction and brand awareness. Therefore, informatization projects do not necessarily use the return on investment for evaluation, but only a project that brings efficiency is a viable project, It will make enterprise employees taste the sweetness of informatization, make enterprise leaders enhance their confidence in informatization, and lay a better foundation for subsequent informatization work. The construction of enterprise information system is to grasp the key points and implement them in a distributed manner on the basis of the overall plan

the overall planning of information system is to regard the information construction of the whole enterprise as a whole, and plan the whole system according to enterprise data rather than business functions, so as to ensure that in the case of step-by-step implementation, information islands within the enterprise will not be formed, and that the business data of various departments can be shared within the whole enterprise. How to do a good job in the overall planning of enterprise information system, enterprise leaders must participate in this work, not just the affairs of technicians. Enterprise leaders should establish a correct idea of information construction, that is, the construction of information system is not only a technical project. The use of information system changes the way information is transmitted in the organization, but also changes the structure of the organization and the working methods and business processes of employees, The standardization of business processes and the sharing of information will inevitably damage the interests of some departments and individuals. In the process of implementing the information system, it is inevitable to involve the political struggle of enterprises. The larger the scale of informatization, the more intense the contradictions caused. Enterprise leaders must be fully prepared for this. In the overall planning of the information system, it is also necessary to establish the objectives of the information system, that is, in which aspects and how the information system should play a role. The establishment of the objectives of the information system is also the standard to measure the success or failure of the system in the future, and to establish the implementation steps of the information system. When the implemented information system continues to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, enterprises will have funds to gradually carry out subsequent information project construction

in a word, the construction of information system is a process of such false prosperity. On the one hand, the number of people who create wealth is greatly reduced and distributed. In the construction process, we should not be greedy for perfection, so as to avoid the lack of funds and manpower, resulting in loss of control and project failure. Any information system has a life cycle. When it comes to information projects, it cannot go beyond the existing conditions and technologies, and it is required to complete all the functions that enterprise leaders want. The information system should be a project that has better completed the information objectives under the existing conditions

selection of the person in charge of information system implementation

how to solve the problem of lack of professional talents when the enterprise leaders decide on the last informatization project? Enterprises can gradually cultivate their own information technology personnel in the process of informatization. For enterprises, professional technicians are not professionals who only know technology. They should be familiar with the business process of enterprises. In the process of enterprise informatization, it projects can be outsourced to powerful companies, but in the process of outsourcing, enterprise managers must understand the completed projects and technical strength of the company, At the same time, a leading group for the implementation of it projects is established in the enterprise. The person in charge of the group must be very familiar with the enterprise. This person has a certain prestige in the enterprise and is good at accepting new things. In this way, even if he does not understand technology, he can gradually understand it technology through the interaction with the technical personnel of the IT company. When some enterprises started the information construction, they did not use outsourcing mode in the absence of professional and technical personnel, but used internal employees to learn while working. At the same time, enterprise electricity

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